Designing Coherent Instruction in the area of Learning Activities – When I think of math, what used to come to mind was boring, solitary, repetitive exercises involving memorizing times tables or algorithms. Throughout this program I have learned that the most effective math instruction is creative, engaging, and social. According to Ernst & Ryan (2014), math discourse, or the ways students talk about math, shapes the way they think about it (p. 196). Having students engage in listening, responding, and expressing their thinking process helps them to develop critical thinking habits while at the same time creating that safe and supportive environment where students can try and use different methods. Math discourse not only fundamentally shapes student learning around mathematics but can positively impact classroom environment.